The Financial Times, in reference to the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, cited the 1993 optimistic assessment of the Gulf War oil spill as evidence that "Initial warnings of catastrophic environmental damage from oil spills can turn out to be overdone". The National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, formed by Obama in May 2010, faulted the Obama administration’s response to the spill in a report issued in October. The immediate reports from Baghdad said that American airstrikes had caused a discharge of oil from two tankers. The Korean War: Causes, Effects and The United Nations, The Soviet War in Afghanistan: Causes & Timeline, Vietnam Syndrome: Definition, Causes & Impact, Fall of the Soviet Union and End of the Cold War: Causes & Timeline, Conflict in the Middle East: OPEC's 1970s Oil Embargo & Its Impact, The Six-Day War of 1967: Causes & Timeline, Causes, Timeline & Effects of the Suez Crisis, The Cold War: Definition, Causes & Early Events, The Creation of Israel in 1948: Timeline & Resulting Conflicts, The War in Afghanistan: Causes, Timeline & Controversy, What is Disarmament? The latter is mostly caused by cyanobacteria which forms impermeable mats. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Full recovery of the salt marshes will certainly need some centuries. A moratorium on offshore drilling, enacted by U.S. Pres. Workers contracted by BP cleaning up oil on a beach in Port Fourchon, Louisiana, May 23, 2010. In all, an estimated 1,100 miles (1,770 km) of shoreline were polluted. Coalition forces determined the main source of oil to be the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. A report released in September by the Joint Investigation Team of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and the U.S. Coast Guard emphasized BP’s ultimate responsibility for the disaster. How many Iraqi tanks were destroyed in the Gulf... How did the Gulf War affect the U.S. economy? The Gulf War oil spill. By 2013 the fund was largely depleted. In other cases tar crusts are responsible. Booms to corral portions of the slick were deployed, and the contained oil was then siphoned off or burned. A year later nearly a third of the fund had been paid out, though lack of oversight allowed government entities to submit wildly inflated claims, some unrelated to the spill. The most important paths of regeneration are the tidal channels and the adjacent areas. Coalition forces determined the main source of oil to be the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. Completely recovered are the rocky shores and mangroves. already 1993 by UNEP, several coastal areas even in 2001 still show significant oil impact and in some places no recovery at all. Following demands by Obama, BP created a $20 billion compensation fund for those affected by the spill. The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991. The salt marshes which occur at almost 50% of the coastline show the heaviest impact compared to the other ecosystem types after 10 years. By the next year, the company had lost almost a quarter of its market value and had hemorrhaged over $40 billion in costs associated with cleanup and recovery. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. All rights reserved. The immediate reports from Baghdad said that American airstrikes had caused a discharge of oil from two tankers. The New York Times reported that a 1993 study sponsored by UNESCO, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the United States found the spill did "little long-term damage": About half the oil evaporated, 1,000,000 US barrels (120,000 m3) were recovered and 2,000,000 US barrels (240,000 m3) to 3,000,000 US barrels (360,000 m3) washed ashore, mainly in Saudi Arabia.. The drilling moratorium, initially set to expire in November 2010, was lifted in mid-October, though new drilling permits were not issued until February of the subsequent year following mounting government and industry pressure to increase domestic oil production. Few travelers were willing to face the prospect of petroleum-sullied beaches, leaving those dependent on tourism struggling to supplement their incomes. The long term effects were very significant. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Services, Causes, Events & Political Figures of the Gulf War, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community.  The apparent strategic goal was to foil a potential landing by US Marines. Create your account. Deepwater Horizon oil spill - Deepwater Horizon oil spill - Cleanup efforts: The petroleum that had leaked from the well before it was sealed formed a slick extending over more than 57,500 square miles (149,000 square km) of the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard is ordering Taylor Energy to clean an oil spill in the Gulf. Economic prospects in the Gulf Coast states were dire, as the spill affected many of the industries upon which residents depended. - Definition, Conferences & Meaning, Boxer Rebellion in China: Definition, Summary & History, Causes & Conflicts of the Indo-Pakistani Wars, United States Involvement in the Korean War: Causes and Effects, Types of Power in International Relations: Strengths & Weaknesses, Non-Aligned Movement in the Cold War: Definition & Nations, The Vietnam War: Causes, Conflicts & Effects, Post-Civil War U.S. History: Help and Review, Post-Civil War American History: Homework Help, American History Since 1865: Tutoring Solution, History, Culture & People of the Americas, TCI History Alive The Medieval World and Beyond: Online Textbook Help, Prentice Hall United States History: Online Textbook Help, Prentice Hall America: History of our Nation: Online Textbook Help, History 311: The Holocaust & World War II, Biological and Biomedical So it has had long term impact. Recovery was incremental. It also made commandeering oil reserves dangerous for US and Coalition forces as visibility and movement were inhibited. The investigation further found that BP and Transocean employees aboard the rig had—while engaged in testing procedures—ignored early indications of a problem and thus missed opportunities to prevent a full-scale blowout.  Several other sources of oil were found to be active: tankers and a damaged Kuwaiti oil refinery near Mina Al Ahmadi, tankers near Bubiyan Island, and Iraq's Mina Al Bakr terminal. The Gulf War oil spill occurred in January 1991 when massive amounts of crude oil were released into the Persian Gulf. To clean oil from the open water, 1.8 million gallons of dispersants—substances that emulsified the oil, thus allowing for easier metabolism by bacteria—were pumped directly into the leak and applied aerially to the slick. Halliburton and Transocean similarly pointed to failures on the part of the other parties involved. He was replaced in October. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in pictures, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Malaysia Airlines flight 370 disappearance. More recent scientific studies have tended to disagree with this assessment. What country did Iraq invade during the Gulf... Was the Persian Gulf War a complete American... Why was the U.S. involved in the Gulf War? BP, Transocean, and several other companies were held liable for the billions of dollars in costs accrued. answer! The commission’s final report, issued in January 2011, attributed the spill to a lack of regulatory oversight by the government and negligence and time-saving measures on the part of BP and its partners. And so when we went back in to do the quantitative survey in 2002 and 2003, there were a million cubic meters of oil sediment remained then 12 years after the spill.... [T]he oil penetrated much more deeply into the intertidal sediment than normal because those sediments there have a lot of crab burrows, and the oil penetrated deep, sometimes 30, 40 centimeters, you know a couple of feet, into the mud of these tidal flats. The report noted that, although the defective concrete cap had been installed by Halliburton, decisions about the installation process made by BP had been the cause of the failure. Dr. Jacqueline Michel, US geochemist (2010 interview – transcript of radio broadcast):. The apparent strategic goal was to foil a potential landing by US Marines. There was no shoreline cleanup, essentially, over the 800 kilometers that the oil – - in Saudi Arabia. In what was apparently an effort to stop US forces from landing on beaches on Kuwait, Iraqi troops dumped oil into the Gulf. The availability of oxygen is the most important criteria for oil degradation. The Gulf War oil spill sent hundreds of millions of gallons into the Persian Gulf. The Gulf oil spill has been leaking for 14 years. Where oil degrades it was obvious that benthic intertidal fauna such as crabs re-colonize the destroyed habitats long before the halophytes. Sand beaches are the best way to complete recovery. The emergence of BP chief executive Tony Hayward as the public face of the oil giant further inflamed public sentiment against the embattled company. State governments struggled to draw attention to unsoiled or newly scrubbed beaches with advertising campaigns, often drawing on funds from BP. Did the United Nations support the invasion of... evaluate the post cols war in the US and the... How did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect... What event marked the end of the Cold War? , "Timeline: 120 years of major oil spills", "Environmental Warfare: 1991 Persian Gulf War", http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/47965000/gif/_47965679_oil_spills_comp_466.gif, "Gulf Found to Recover From War's Oil Spill", "Lessons learned from Gulf War oil spill", "Confusion over scale of oil spill pollution", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gulf_War_oil_spill&oldid=981484738, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 October 2020, at 16:09. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners.