Myrmica rubra, also known as the European fire ant or common red ant, is a species of ant of the genus Myrmica, found all over Europe and is now invasive in some parts of North America and Asia. Årsh. Entomol. Borowiec L., and S. Salata. Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle. 67: 11-12, Collingwood C.A. In some circumstances M. rubra populations may form huge polycalic colonies with hundreds of thousands or even millions of workers, like in some North America populations and very occasionally in some European populations (personal observation). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8. 1908: 165-205 (page 169, see also), Fedoseeva, E. B. Biol. Succession in ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in deciduous forest clear-cuts – an Eastern European case study. 1978. Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists, References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics, Key to Myrmica of East Europe, West Siberia, northern Kazakhstan, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Turkmenistan and Iran, Key to Myrmica of West Europe and North Africa, Key to Myrmica of species of East Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Korean Peninsula, northern China, and Japan, Key to Myrmica of the Middle Asian Mountains, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World. 2018. Boevé, J.-L. and F.L. Entomologiste Picard 26, 15 pages. Kupianskaya A. N., Lelej, A.S., and Urbain, B. K. 2000. (Hym.). Degradation changes in the structure of multispecies associations of ants in urbanized areas. Zhuytszyuan D. 2016. "Prilozi fauni hrvatskih opnokrilaca." Collingwood C.A. Ant studies in Rogaland (south-western Norway). Liste de détermination des principales espèces de fourmis belges (Hymenoptera Formicidae). These ants live under stones and fallen trees, and in soil. 127 pp. Ant survival was compromised by the presence of the fungus-bearing corpses: workers died faster with a significantly lower survival from the 4th day compared to workers challenged with freeze-killed corpses. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17. Abstract: Pitfall trapping revealed that the European fire ant, Myrmica rubra (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), represents an unusual example of a temperate invasive ant species. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 147: 99–134. Zryanin V. A., and T. A. Zryanina. Paris: Déterville, 84 + 85 + 238 + 18 + 34 pp. Colindre L. 2015. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 59B:213-219. Rev. Parte seconda. Scandinavian Ants. 1928. Contribution to the Myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of East and South Serbia. 1992. Scand. 73: 190-195, Collingwood C.A. Stukalyuk S. V. 2015. In coastal meadows M. rubra are less tolerant of salted soils compared to M. scabrinodis but nests can survive periodic inundation (Boomsma and De Vries 1980; Boomsma and lsaaks 1982). Petal J., H. Jakubczyk, and Z. Wojcik. Petiole node with short indistinct dorsal area sloping evenly without definite break to its junction with the postpetiole. Memorabilia Zoologica 29: 61-77. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Poland. 13: 69-96. Schar S., G Talavera, X. Espadaler, J. D. Rana, A. Yasuda M., and F. Koike. 1994. The Formicidae (or ants) of the Isle of Wight. Markó B., B. Sipos, S. Csősz, K. Kiss, I. Boros, and L. Gallé. M. rubra have a well equipped sting apparatus (Billen 1986) and although some people react allergically to the venom, the sting and venom does not seem markedly different from that of other free-stinging myrmicines (e.g. Wlodarczyk T. 2010. 2012. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1955. 1970. 2003. 1977). Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e8050. 2015. Ksiegi Pamiatkowej (Lecia Gimn. Res. XV. 134 (2/1) : 89-96. - a social parasitic ant so far known as the microgyne of Myrmica rubra (L.). 1976. Ent. In western Europe it is considered to be a species of damp meadows and is rarely found in woods and forests, the largest populations usually occur on west-facing slopes with heavy clayey (often limestone) soils, where it builds nests in the soil and under flat stones. R. Ist. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 83: 163-190. Hist. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). 1993. They have been known to live for up to 15 years. 2007). Paukkunen J., and M. V. Kozlov. Francoeur A., and R. Béique. Consani M., and P. Zangheri. Appearance. Natura Somogyiensis 13: 155-158. Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. Ant Communities of West Slope of Mount Demula and Bomi Valley in Southeastern Tibet. Entomol. Anz. Russian Journal of Ecology 44(6): 523526. Bulletin de la societe Neuchateloise des sciences naturelles 133: 183-200. Fr. Galle L. 1997. Soulie J. Vele A., J. Holisa, J. Tragnerova. Rev. Proceedings of the international. 1958. 2017. Cuza Ia?i 54: 53-55. Galle L. 1993. 1971. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Entomological Review 95(3): 370–387. 9: 159-166. Formicidae). Contribution to the knowledge of the myrmecofauna of the Cefa Nature Park (North-Western Romania). Espadaler, X., Santamaria, S. 2012. Gos. Euroasian Entomological Journal 2(4): 235-342. 1901. The distribution of ants in north-west Scotland. 1962. 1972. The principal competitors of M. rubra are other Myrmica species but in meadows it faces strong competition from Lasius niger (Czechowski 1985). Kozisek T. 1987. 1802b. Barcelona (1879). 2017. Lebas C., C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, X. Espadaler, and R. Blatrix. Gratiashvili N., Barjadze S. 2008. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 415 pp. Fam. Slipinski P., M. Zmihorski, and W. Czechowski. Miscellanea Zoologica 23 (2) (2001): 45-53. Classification and Distribution of ants in Kashgar, Xinjiang. Barrett K. E. J. 2020. 105: 681689. Most studies to date show that individual nests contain from a few tens of workers to up to eight thousand with a mean of about 1,000 (Wardlaw and Elmes 1996); nests are usually polygynous with a mean of about 15 queens and nests hardly ever exceed a maximum density of 1 queen per 10 workers (Elmes 1973a). Gredleriana 12: 273 - 284. Pathol. Entomologist 106: 133-136. 1983. Reznikova Z. I. Phylogeography and cryptic speciation in the Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and their conservation implications. Ants (Formicoidea) of the Abrod State Nature Reserve. Wetterer, J.K., Radchenko, A.G. 2011. 1956. Ants of selected peat bog habitats at the Horná Orava protected area. 1947. When they find dead bodies, undertakers pick up the dead bodies and quickly carry them away from their nest up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) away. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 60: 245–258. Ant's population in the chern taiga of Tigireksky mountain range (North-Western Altai). Barrett K. E. 1967. Liu X. Sculpture dilute; frontal triangle and subspinal areas smooth and shining. A primary study on the fauna of Formicidae in Urumqi and its vicinities. Vogrin, V. "Prilog fauni Hymenoptera - Aculeata Jugoslavije." List of Chinese Insects. 3. Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. Invasive ants disperse seeds farther than native ants, affecting the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment and survival.
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